AAPS PharmSciTech

Hydrophobic thiolation of pectin with 4-aminothiophenol: synthesis and in vitro characterization.

PMID 20101485


The aim of this study was to modify pectin by covalent attachment of the water-insoluble ligand 4-aminothiophenol to its polymeric backbone. 4-Aminothiophenol is a ligand which is highly prone to oxidation. Therefore, this ligand allows oxidative cross-linking of pectin under mild oxidative conditions. Additionally, hydrophobization of pectin can be achieved by the mentioned modification which offers certain advantages over highly hydrophilic native pectins. 4-Aminothiophenol was covalently attached to pectin via amide bond formation between carboxylic moieties of pectin and the amino-group of 4-aminothiophenol. Two different pectin-4-aminothiophenol conjugates were synthesized and investigated regarding the amount of coupled ligand, rheological behavior under oxidative conditions, swelling behavior, and cytotoxic effects. Within this study, 557.3 +/- 49.0 and 158.8 +/- 23.1 micromol 4-aminothiophenol have been coupled per gram pectin. Within both conjugates, around 75% of the bound ligand appeared in its reduced form. Within rheological studies, a 500-fold increase in viscosity was achieved by addition of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent. Investigations on the swelling behavior revealed that this hydrophobic modification of pectin results in decelerated water uptake on the one hand and improved cohesive properties after oxidation of thiol groups to disulfide bonds on the other hand. Thereby, the maximum amount of water which can be uptaken by pectin matrices could be increased. According to these results, Pec-ATP conjugates could be valuable tools for several pharmaceutical applications due to the established method of gelation and the altered swelling and disintegration behavior.

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4-Aminothiophenol, 97%