Salivary chenodeoxycholic acid and its glycine-conjugate: their determination method using LC-MS/MS and variation of their concentrations with increased saliva flow rate.

PMID 20117124


Measurement of steroid levels in saliva has been proposed as a new laboratory tool for characterizing steroid metabolism, but it is not known whether the salivary levels of bile acids can be measured with accuracy and if so, whether such measurements provide information that is of clinical value. We developed and validated a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantification of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA), representative primary non-amidated and glycine-conjugated bile acids, in whole saliva. We also examined whether the salivary bile acid concentrations were dependent on the saliva flow rate, because this is a very important aspect in a discussion of the utility of salivary diagnostics. Saliva was deproteinized with ethanol and purified using a Strata-X cartridge. Bile acids were converted to their hydrazide derivatives using 2-hydrazinopyridine, and subjected to LC-MS/MS. Quantification was based on selected reaction monitoring using characteristic transitions, and deuterated CDCA and GCDCA were used as internal standards. This method allowed the reproducible and accurate quantification of the salivary bile acids using a 200-microl sample and the limits of quantification for CDCA and GCDCA were 25 and 50pg/ml, respectively. Using this method, the effect of increased saliva flow rate by gum-chewing on the salivary concentrations of CDCA and GCDCA was determined. The salivary level of GCDCA was significantly decreased by gum-chewing, whereas the concentration of CDCA remained constant. These results indicate that there is a good possibility that saliva may be a clinical tool for non-amidated bile acid testing.