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Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

Disposition of drugs in cystic fibrosis. I. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim.


PMID 2015729

Abstract

The disposition of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, after constant rate intravenous administration (10 mg/kg/hr sulfamethoxazole and 2 mg/kg/hr trimethoprim for 1 hour), was investigated in adult patients with cystic fibrosis (n = 7) and in age-matched healthy subjects (control subjects, n = 8). The total plasma clearance of sulfamethoxazole was found to be increased in cystic fibrosis (0.0262 +/- 0.0064 L/hr/kg) when compared with that found in control subjects (0.0188 +/- 0.0043 L/hr/kg). This increase in clearance was found to be primarily attributable to an increase in the metabolic clearance of sulfamethoxazole to N4-acetylsulfamethoxazole (0.00903 +/- 0.00247 versus 0.00355 +/- 0.00049 L/hr/kg) with the renal clearance of sulfamethoxazole remaining unchanged. These conclusions were not altered when the pharmacokinetic parameters were computed for the unbound drug or when they were normalized with respect to body surface area. These data indicate that, in cystic fibrosis, the enzymes mediating the metabolism of sulfamethoxazole to N4-acetylsulfamethoxazole, N-acetyltransferase(s), may be induced, activated, or both, or that the uptake of sulfamethoxazole by cells that metabolize sulfamethoxazole to N4-acetylsulfamethoxazole is enhanced. The total plasma clearance of trimethoprim was also found to be increased in cystic fibrosis (0.1808 +/- 0.0440 L/hr/kg) when compared with that found in control subjects (0.1139 +/- 0.0193 L/hr/kg). In contrast to sulfamethoxazole, this increase in clearance was found to be primarily attributable to an increase in the renal clearance of trimethoprim (0.1240 +/- 0.0299 versus 0.0720 +/- 0.0166 L/hr/kg). These data indicate that the tubular secretion of trimethoprim may be enhanced in cystic fibrosis.

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