Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes

Ciprofloxacin-sensitive and ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni are equally susceptible to natural orange oil-based antimicrobials.

PMID 20183064


A total of 10 ciprofloxacin-sensitive (ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC < 0.5 micro g/ml) and 10 ciprofloxacin-resistant (MIC 16 to 32 micro g/ml) presumptive C. jejuni were further characterized and evaluated for their inhibition by natural orange oil fractions. Partial species identification was performed by using a hippuricase gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. One of the isolates appeared to be atypical and failed to hydrolyze hippurate. Of the ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni isolates tested, six were found to have their quinolone resistance determined by a C --> T mutation in codon 86 of gyrA. Both groups of ciprofloxacin-sensitive and -resistant C. jejuni isolates were most susceptible to cold-pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil (C4) which yielded inhibition zones from 44.0 +/- 1.4 to 80 +/- 0.0 mm. Less inhibitory responses were recorded for 5-fold concentrated Valencia orange oil (C3) and distilled d-limonene (C7) which exerted similar effects on both ciprofloxacin-sensitive and -resistant C. jejuni isolates. In general, ciprofloxacin-resistant and -sensitive C. jejuni isolates were equally susceptible to the respective orange oil fractions.