Journal of AOAC International

Evaluation of immunoassays as an alternative for the rapid determination of pesticides in wine and grape samples.

PMID 20334160


The main objective of this paper is to address the performance of immunochemical assays for the detection of the residues of three pesticides [atrazine, bromopropylate, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP)] in real winery samples, such as wine, grapes, and grape juice. Different approaches have been evaluated to minimize interferences from the matrixes, and suitable working protocols have been established in order to achieve the necessary LODs, accuracy, and precision for real samples. A simple dilution of the sample proved to be sufficient for the determination of atrazine and bromopropylate in red and white wine and grape juice at the required levels of concentration. However, for TCP, an SPE procedure has been optimized using amino cartridges. The recoveries were above 85% in all cases, and the LOD values were below the parts per billion level, except for bromopropylate, which ranged between 2 and 50 microg/L, depending on the matrix. The grape matrix effect could be resolved by a simple extraction with methanol. Complete recoveries were obtained, and the final measurement procedures were able to determine selected pesticides below their maximum residue levels. The newly developed methods have been compared with standard chromatographic methods.

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Bromopropylate, PESTANAL®, analytical standard