Casein kinase 1 functions as both penultimate and ultimate kinase in regulating Cdc25A destruction.

PMID 20348946


The Cdc25A protein phosphatase drives cell-cycle transitions by activating cyclin-dependent protein kinases. Failure to regulate Cdc25A leads to deregulated cell-cycle progression, bypass of cell-cycle checkpoints and genome instability. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis has an important role in balancing Cdc25A levels. Cdc25A contains a DS(82)G motif whose phosphorylation is targeted by beta-TrCP E3 ligase during interphase. Targeting beta-TrCP to Cdc25A requires phosphorylation of serines 79 (S79) and 82 (S82). Here, we report that casein kinase 1 alpha (CK1alpha) phosphorylates Cdc25A on both S79 and S82 in a hierarchical manner requiring prior phosphorylation of S76 by Chk1 or GSK-3beta. This facilitates beta-TrCP binding and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of Cdc25A throughout interphase and after exposure to genotoxic stress. The priming of Cdc25A by at least three kinases (Chk1, GSK-3beta, CK1alpha), some of which also require priming, ensures diverse extra- and intracellular signals interface with Cdc25A to precisely control cell division.