Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences

Quantification of monofluoroacetate and monochloroacetate in human urine by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

PMID 20356806


The rodenticide monofluoroacetate (MFA) and monochloroacetate (MCA), a chemical intermediate from several chemical syntheses, have been identified as potential agents of chemical terrorism due to their high toxicity. In preparation for response to poisonings and mass exposures, we have developed a quantification method using isotopic dilution to determine MFA and MCA in urine from 50 to 5000 ng/mL. Both analytes were extracted from urine using solid-phase extraction; extraction recoveries were 62% (MFA) and 76% (MCA). The extracts were then separated with isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography and identified using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, with detection limits of 0.9 and 7.0 ng/mL for MFA and MCA, respectively. Selectivity was established for both analytes with unique chromatographic retention times which were correlated with isotopically labeled internal standards and the use of two mass spectral transitions for each compound. The intra-day variability was less than 5% for both analytes and the inter-day variability was 7% for MFA and 6% for MCA.