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The Journal of biological chemistry

Phospholipid metabolism in bradykinin-stimulated human fibroblasts. II. Phosphatidylcholine breakdown by phospholipases C and D; involvement of protein kinase C.


PMID 2037586

Abstract

Bradykinin (BK) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) both stimulate the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in human fibroblasts, resulting in the formation of phosphatidic acid (PA) and diacylglycerol (DG) (Van Blitterswijk, W.J., Hilkmann, H., de Widt, J., and Van der Bend, R.L. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 10337-10343). Stimulation with BK resulted in the rapid and synchronous formation of [3H]choline and [3H]myristoyl-PA from the correspondingly prelabeled PC, indicative of phospholipase D (PLD) activity. In the presence of ethanol or n-butanol, transphosphatidylation by PLD resulted in the formation of [3H]phosphatidylethanol or - butanol, respectively, at the cost of PA and DG formation. This suggests that PC-derived DG is generated via a PLD/PA phosphohydrolase pathway. A more pronounced but delayed formation of these products was observed by PMA stimulation. The Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin also activated PLD and accelerated (synergized) the response to PMA. Both [3H] choline and [3H]phosphocholine were released into the extracellular medium in a time- and stimulus-dependent fashion, without apparent changes in the high intracellular levels of [3H]phosphocholine. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors staurosporin and 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-methylglycerol inhibited BK- and PMA-induced activation of PLD. Down-regulation of PKC by long-term pretreatment of cells with phorbol ester caused a dramatic drop in background [3H]choline levels, while subsequent stimulation with BK, ionomycin, or PMA failed to increase these levels and failed to induce transphosphatidylation. From these results we conclude that PLD activation is entirely mediated by (downstream of) PKC. Unexpectedly, however, BK stimulation of these PKC-depleted cells caused a marked generation of DG from PC within 15 s, which was not seen in BK-stimulated control cells, suggesting PC breakdown by a phospholipase C (PLCc). We conclude that cells stimulated with BK generate DG via both the PLCc and the PLD/PA hydrolase pathway, whereas PMA stimulates mainly the latter pathway. BK stimulation of normal cells leads to activation of PKC and, by consequence, to attenuation of the level of PLCc-generated DG and to stimulation of the PLD pathway, whereas the reverse occurs in PKC-down-regulated cells.