International immunology

Chemokine expression in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury is most profound during the reparative phase.

PMID 20410256


Chemokines are important players in the migration of leukocytes to sites of injury and are also involved in angiogenesis, development and wound healing. In this study, we performed microarray analyses to identify chemokines that play a role during the inflammatory and repair phase after renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and investigated the temporal relationship between chemokine expression, leukocyte accumulation and renal damage/repair. C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to unilateral ischemia for 45 min and sacrificed 3 h, 1 day and 7 days after reperfusion. From ischemic and contralateral kidney, RNA was isolated and hybridized to a microarray. Microarray results were validated with quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (QRT-PCR) on RNA from an independent experiment. (Immuno)histochemical analyses were performed to determine renal damage/repair and influx of leukocytes. Twenty out of 114 genes were up-regulated at one or more reperfusion periods. All these genes were up-regulated 7 days after I/R. Up-regulated genes included CC chemokines MCP-1 and TARC, CXC chemokines KC and MIP-2alpha, chemokine receptors Ccr1 and Cx3cr1 and related genes like matrix metalloproteinases. Microarray data of 1 and 7 days were confirmed for 17 up-regulated genes by QRT-PCR. (Immuno)histochemical analysis showed that the inflammatory and repair phase after renal I/R injury take place after, respectively, 1 and 7 days. Interestingly, chemokine expression was highest during the repair phase. In addition, expression profiles showed a biphasic expression of all up-regulated CXC chemokines coinciding with the early inflammatory and late repair phase. In conclusion, we propose that temporal expression of chemokines is a crucial factor in the regulation of renal I/R injury and repair.