Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR

Interventional therapy of head and neck cancer with lipid nanoparticle-carried rhenium 186 radionuclide.

PMID 20478719


Minimally invasive interventional cancer therapy with drug-carrying lipid nanoparticles (ie, liposomes) via convection-enhanced delivery by an infusion pump can increase intratumoral drug concentration and retention while facilitating broad distribution throughout solid tumors. The authors investigated the utility of liposome-carrying beta-emitting radionuclides to treat head and neck cancer by direct intratumoral infusion in nude rats. Four groups of nude rats were subcutaneously inoculated with human tongue cancer cells. After tumors reached an average size of 1.6 cm(3), the treatment group received an intratumoral infusion of liposomal rhenium-186 ((186)Re) (185 MBq [5 mCi]/cm(3) tumor). Three control groups were intratumorally infused with unlabeled liposomes, unencapsulated (186)Re-perrhenate, or unencapsulated intermediate (186)Re compound ((186)Re-N,N-bis[2-mercaptoethyl]-N',N'-diethyl-ethylenediamine [BMEDA]). In vivo distribution of (186)Re activity was measured by planar gamma-camera imaging. Tumor therapy and toxicity were assessed by tumor size, body weight, and hematology. Average tumor volume in the (186)Re-liposome group on posttreatment day 14 decreased to 87.7% +/- 20.1%, whereas tumor volumes increased to 395.0%-514.4% on average in the other three groups (P< .001 vs (186)Re-liposome). The (186)Re-liposomes provided much higher intratumoral retention of (186)Re activity, resulting in an average tumor radiation absorbed dose of 526.3 Gy +/- 93.3, whereas (186)Re-perrhenate and (186)Re-BMEDA groups had only 3.3 Gy +/- 1.2 and 13.4 Gy +/- 9.2 tumor doses, respectively. No systemic toxicity was observed. Liposomal (186)Re effectively treated head and neck cancer with minimal side effects after convection-enhanced interventional delivery. These results suggest the potential of liposomal (186)Re for clinical application in interventional therapy of cancer.