Journal of proteome research

Proteomic identification of carbonylated proteins and their oxidation sites.

PMID 20521848


Excessive oxidative stress leaves a protein carbonylation fingerprint in biological systems. Carbonylation is an irreversible post-translational modification (PTM) that often leads to the loss of protein function and can be a component of multiple diseases. Protein carbonyl groups can be generated directly (by amino acids oxidation and the alpha-amidation pathway) or indirectly by forming adducts with lipid peroxidation products or glycation and advanced glycation end-products. Studies of oxidative stress are complicated by the low concentration of oxidation products and a wide array of routes by which proteins are carbonylated. The development of new selection and enrichment techniques coupled with advances in mass spectrometry are allowing the identification of hundreds of new carbonylated protein products from a broad range of proteins located at many sites in biological systems. The focus of this review is on the use of proteomics tools and methods to identify oxidized proteins along with specific sites of oxidative damage and the consequences of protein oxidation.