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Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals

Methemoglobinemia induced by 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene in mice with a disrupted glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 gene.


PMID 20562208

Abstract

A specific substrate to Mu class glutathione S-transferase (GST), 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), was administered to mice with a disrupted GST Mu 1 gene (Gstm1-null mice) to investigate the in vivo role of murine Gstm1 in toxicological responses to DCNB. A single oral administration of DCNB at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg demonstrated a marked increase in blood methemoglobin (MetHB) in Gstm1-null mice but not in wild-type mice. Therefore, Gstm1-null mice were considered to be more predisposed to methemoglobinemia induced by a single dosing of DCNB. In contrast, 14-day repeated-dose studies of DCNB at doses up to 600 mg/kg demonstrated a marked increase in blood MetHB in both wild-type and Gstm1-null mice. However, marked increases in the blood reticulocyte count, relative spleen weight, and extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen were observed in Gstm1-null mice compared with wild-type mice. In addition, microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses in the spleen showed exclusive up-regulation of hematopoiesis-related genes in Gstm1-null mice. These changes were considered to be adaptive responses to methemoglobinemia and attenuated the higher predisposition to methemoglobinemia observed in Gstm1-null mice in the single-dose study. In toxicokinetics monitoring, DCNB concentrations in plasma and blood cells were higher in Gstm1-null mice than those in wild-type mice, resulting from the Gstm1 disruption. In conclusion, it is suggested that the higher exposure to DCNB due to Gstm1 disruption was reflected in methemoglobinemia in the single-dose study and in adaptive responses in the 14-day repeated-dose study.

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D68800
1,2-Dichloro-4-nitrobenzene, 99%
C6H3Cl2NO2