Foodborne pathogens and disease

Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of plant-derived molecules in increasing the sensitivity of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 to antibiotics.

PMID 20618084


This study investigated the efficacy of plant-derived antimicrobials, namely, trans-cinnamaldehyde, β-resorcylic acid, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol or their combination, in increasing the sensitivity of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 to five antibiotics. The subinhibitory concentrations of each antimicrobial or their combination containing concentrations lower than the individual subinhibitory concentrations were added to tryptic soy broth supplemented with antibiotics at their respective break points for resistance. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 was inoculated into tryptic soy broth at ~6 log CFU/mL, and growth (optical density at 600 nm) was determined before and after incubation at 37° C for 24 hours. Appropriate controls were included. Duplicate samples were assayed and the experiment was replicated three times. Trans-cinnamaldehyde increased the sensitivity of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (p<0.05) toward all five antibiotics, namely, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline, thereby making the pathogen susceptible to drugs. Thymol made the pathogen susceptible to all four antibiotics except ampicillin, whereas carvacrol increased the sensitivity to two antibiotics (chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole for strain H3380, and streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole for strain 43). The combination of five molecules was more effective than individual ones (p<0.05) in rendering the pathogen susceptible to the antibiotics. Results indicate that these natural molecules individually and synergistically increased the sensitivity of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 to all the five antibiotics, and justify future studies to control antibiotic resistance of the pathogen in food animals using these plant molecules.

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2,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, 97%
2,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, ≥97%