Arteriosclerosis and thrombosis : a journal of vascular biology

The mutation causing the common apolipoprotein A-IV polymorphism is a glutamine to histidine substitution of amino acid 360.

PMID 2065039


Apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV is a protein involved in the metabolism of chylomicrons and high density lipoproteins. This protein displays genetic polymorphism due to two main codominant alleles, A-IV1 and A-IV2. We have identified the mutation that leads to this polymorphism. It is caused by a single-base substitution of guanine for thymine in the third base of codon 360. This substitution leads to a glutamine to histidine change. Direct sequencing of amplified DNA from eight subjects in a three-generation pedigree has demonstrated that the guanine to thymine substitution can explain the apo A-IV polymorphism. In 32 unrelated individuals, a correspondence between apo A-IV phenotype determined by isoelectric focusing and genotype determined with Fnu4HI digestion of amplified DNA could be demonstrated. The enzyme lecithin:cholesteryl acyltransferase (LCAT) is activated by apo A-IV. Under our in vitro conditions, the isoprotein apo A-IV 1-1 is a better LCAT activator than is the isoprotein apo A-IV 2-2. A knowledge of the molecular mechanism underlying the apo A-IV polymorphism will help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in LCAT activation.