Methods in enzymology

Production of cloned mice from somatic cells, ES cells, and frozen bodies.

PMID 20691865


Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has become a unique and powerful tool for epigenetic reprogramming research and gene manipulation in animals. Although the success rates of somatic cloning have been inefficient and the mechanism of reprogramming is still largely unknown, therefore, the nuclear transfer (NT) method has been thought of as a "black box approach" and inadequate to determine the detail of how genomic reprogramming occurs. However, only the NT approach can reveal dynamic and global modifications in the epigenome without using genetic modification, as well as can create live animals. At present, this is the only technique available for the preservation and propagation of valuable genetic resources from mutant mice that are infertile or too old, or recovered from carcasses, without the use of germ cells. This chapter describes a basic protocol for mouse cloning and embryonic stem (ES) cell establishment from cloned embryo using a piezo-actuated micromanipulator. This technique will greatly help not only in mouse cloning but also in other forms of micromanipulation such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) into oocytes or ES cell injection into blastocysts. In addition, we describe a new, more efficient mouse cloning protocol using histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), which increases the success rates of cloned mice or establish rate of ES cells to fivefold.

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