Journal of muscle research and cell motility

Nitric oxide regulates stretch-induced proliferation in C2C12 myoblasts.

PMID 20717711


Mechanical stretch of skeletal muscle activates nitric oxide (NO) production and is an important stimulator of satellite cell proliferation. Further, cyclooxygenase (COX) activity has been shown to promote satellite cell proliferation in response to stretch. Since COX-2 expression in skeletal muscle can be regulated by NO we sought to determine if NO is required for stretch-induced myoblast proliferation and whether supplemental NO can counter the effects of COX-2 and NF-kappaB inhibitors. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured for 24 h, then switched to medium containing either the NOS inhibitor, L-NAME (200 microM), the COX-2 specific inhibitor NS-398 (100 microM), the NF-kappaB inhibiting antioxidant, PDTC (5 mM), the nitric oxide donor, DETA-NONOate (10-100 microM) or no supplement (control) for 24 h. Subgroups of each treatment were exposed to 1 h of 15% cyclic stretch (1 Hz), and were then allowed to proliferate for 24 h before fixing. Proliferation was measured by BrdU incorporation during the last hour before fixing, and DAPI stain. Stretch induced a twofold increase in nuclear number compared to control, and this effect was completely inhibited by L-NAME, NS-398 or PDTC (P < 0.05). Although DETA-NONOate (10 microM) did not affect basal proliferation, the NO-donor augmented the stretch-induced increase in proliferation and rescued stretch-induced proliferation in NS-398-treated cells, but not in PDTC-treated cells. In conclusion, NO, COX-2, and NF-kappaB are necessary for stretch-induced proliferation of myoblasts. Although COX-2 and NF-kappaB are both involved in basal proliferation, NO does not affect basal growth. Thus, NO requires the synergistic effect of stretch in order to induce muscle cell proliferation.

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Diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide adduct, ≥97% (NMR), solid