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The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology

Pharmacokinetics of drugs in rats with diabetes mellitus induced by alloxan or streptozocin: comparison with those in patients with type I diabetes mellitus.


PMID 20722995

Abstract

In rats with diabetes mellitus induced by alloxan (DMIA) or streptozocin (DMIS), changes in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes in the liver, lung, kidney, intestine, brain, and testis have been reported based on Western blot analysis, Northern blot analysis, and various enzyme activities. Changes in phase II enzyme activities have been reported also. Hence, in this review, changes in the pharmacokinetics of drugs that were mainly conjugated and metabolized via CYPs or phase II isozymes in rats with DMIA or DMIS, as reported in various literature, have been explained. The changes in the pharmacokinetics of drugs that were mainly conjugated and mainly metabolized in the kidney, and that were excreted mainly via the kidney or bile in DMIA or DMIS rats were reviewed also. For drugs mainly metabolized via hepatic CYP isozymes, the changes in the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time infinity (AUC) of metabolites, AUC(metabolite)/AUC(parent drug) ratios, or the time-averaged nonrenal and total body clearances (CL(NR) and CL, respectively) of parent drugs as reported in the literature have been compared. After intravenous administration of drugs that were mainly metabolized via hepatic CYP isozymes, their hepatic clearances were found to be dependent on the in-vitro hepatic intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) for the disappearance of the parent drug (or in the formation of the metabolite), the free fractions of the drugs in the plasma, or the hepatic blood flow rate depending on their hepatic extraction ratios. The changes in the pharmacokinetics of drugs that were mainly conjugated and mainly metabolized via the kidney in DMIA or DMIS rats were dependent on the drugs. However, the biliary or renal CL values of drugs that were mainly excreted via the kidney or bile in DMIA or DMIS rats were faster. Pharmacokinetic studies of drugs in patients with type I diabetes mellitus were scarce. Moreover, similar and different results for drug pharmacokinetics were obtained between diabetic rats and patients with type I diabetes mellitus. Thus, present experimental rat data should be extrapolated carefully in humans.