C1q/TNF-related protein-3 represents a novel and endogenous lipopolysaccharide antagonist of the adipose tissue.

PMID 20739398


Proteins secreted by adipocytes (adipokines) play an important role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the associated chronic and low-grade state of inflammation. It was the aim to characterize the antiinflammatory potential of the new adipocytokine, C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP-3), which shows structural homologies to the pleiotropic adipocytokine adiponectin. mRNA and protein expression of CTRP-3 was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot. Recombinant CTRP-3 and small interfering RNA-based strategies were used to investigate the effect of CTRP-3 on toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-, and lauric acid-induced chemokine release of monocytes and adipocytes. Together with complex ELISA-based techniques, a designed TLR4/myeloid differentiation protein-2 fusion molecule shown to bind LPS was used to prove the ability of CTRP-3 to act as endogenous LPS antagonist. CTRP-3 is synthesized in monocytes and adipocytes. The recombinant protein dose-dependently inhibits the release of chemokines in monocytes and adipocytes that were induced by lauric acid, LPS, and other TLR ligands in vitro and ex vivo. CTRP-3 inhibits monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 release in adipocytes, whereas small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of CTRP-3 up-regulates monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 release, reduces lipid droplet size, and decreases intracellular triglyceride concentration in adipocytes, causing a dedifferentiation into a more proinflammatory and immature phenotype. By using a designed TLR4/MD-2 fusion molecule, it is shown by different techniques that CTRP-3 specifically and effectively inhibits the binding of LPS to its receptor, TLR4/MD-2. CTRP-3 inhibits three basic and common proinflammatory pathways involved in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (adipo-inflammation) by acting as an endogenous LPS antagonist of the adipose tissue.