Ecotoxicology and environmental safety

Evaluation of 2,4-D and Dicamba genotoxicity in bean seedlings using comet and RAPD assays.

PMID 20797789


The present study was undertaken to evaluate genotoxic potential of two auxinic herbicides [2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (Dicamba)] in the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings. Two-day-old etiolated seedlings were treated with 10 ppm methyl methanesulfonate (MMS, positive control) or 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 ppm of either 2,4-D or Dicamba. At the end of a 96 h growth period, root growth, total soluble protein content, DNA damage in individual cells (comet assay scores) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles were used as endpoints of genotoxicity. 2,4-D and Dicamba were clearly dose-dependent root growth inhibitors. Total soluble protein content was significantly decreased in the positive control and at high concentrations (0.2 and 0.3 ppm) of Dicamba. Soluble protein content increased significantly only at 0.3 ppm 2,4-D (P<0.05). In the comet assay, DNA fragmentation increased in a dose-dependent manner. The diagnostic and phenetic analyzes of appeared and/or disappeared RAPD bands indicated that dose-dependent DNA polymorphism was induced by both herbicides. Genomic template stability was significantly affected at all 2,4-D and Dicamba doses tested. Overall 2,4-D and Dicamba have similar effects on DNA damage detected by comet and RAPD assays.

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