Inhibition of insulin and T3-induced fatty acid synthase by hexanoate.

PMID 20811782


Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is responsible for the de novo synthesis of palmitate and stearate. This enzyme is activated by insulin and T(3), and inhibited by fatty acids. In this study, we show that insulin and T(3) have an inducing effect on FAS enzymatic activity, which is synergetic when both hormones are present. Octanoate and hexanoate specifically inhibit this hormonal effect. A similar inhibitory effect is observed at the level of protein expression. Transient transfections in HepG2 cells revealed that hexanoate inhibits, at least in part, FAS at a transcriptional level targeting the T(3) response element (TRE) on the FAS promoter. The effect of C6 on FAS expression cannot be attributed to a modification of insulin receptor activation or to a decrease in T(3) entry in the cells. Using bromo-hexanoate, we determined that hexanoate needs to undergo a transformation in order to have an effect. When incubating cells with triglyceride-hexanoate or carnitine-hexanoate, no effect on the enzymatic activity induced by insulin and T(3) is observed. A similar result was obtained when cells were incubated with betulinic acid, an inhibitor of the diacylglycerol acyltransferase. However, the incubation of cells with Triacsin C, a general inhibitor of acyl-CoA synthetases, completely reversed the inhibitory effect of hexanoate. Our results suggest that in hepatic cells, hexanoate needs to be activated into a CoA derivative in order to inhibit the insulin and T(3)-induced FAS expression. This effect is partially transcriptional, targeting the TRE on the FAS promoter.

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Sodium hexanoate, 99-100%