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Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

3-deoxygalactosone, a "new" 1,2-dicarbonyl compound in milk products.


PMID 20822095

Abstract

1,2-Dicarbonyl compounds are formed in food during Maillard and caramelization reactions. 3-Deoxy-D-threo-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxygalactosone, 3-DGal) and galactosone, two 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds originating from the degradation of galactose, were synthesized and converted to the respective quinoxalines, which were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. Analytical separation of the quinoxalines from the epimeric glucose-derived quinoxalines of 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and glucosone was achieved by RP-HPLC on an RP-phenyl column. This method was used to study the relevance of galactose-derived 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in a variety of foods. 3-DG and 3-DGal were quantified besides 3-deoxypentosone, methylglyoxal, and glyoxal after derivatization with o-phenylenediamine in lactose-hydrolyzed UHT milk, ranging from 2.5 to 18 mg/L and from 2.0 to 11 mg/L, respectively. The concentrations of both compounds tended to be higher in other lactose-hydrolyzed food items as well. During storage of lactose-hydrolyzed milk, the concentrations of the 3-deoxyhexosones first increased, but especially the concentration of 3-DGal tended to decrease on prolonged storage, pointing to lower stability of the compound. 3-DGal was also detected in galactose-free food items such as apple juice and beer. The possible formation of 3-DGal from 3-DG by 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene as an intermediate is discussed. Compared to the relatively high concentrations of 3-DG and 3-DGal, 3-deoxypentosone, methylglyoxal, and glyoxal were of only minor quantitative importance in all foods studied.

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