The Journal of biological chemistry

Regulation of MyD88 aggregation and the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway by sequestosome 1 and histone deacetylase 6.

PMID 20837465


MyD88 is an essential adaptor molecule for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor. MyD88 is thought to be present as condensed forms or aggregated structures in the cytoplasm, although the reason has not yet been clear. Here, we show that endogenous MyD88 is present as small speckle-like condensed structures, formation of which depends on MyD88 dimerization. In addition, formation of large aggregated structures is related to cytoplasmic accumulation of sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1; also known as p62) and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), which are involved in accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins. A gene knockdown study revealed that SQSTM1 and HDAC6 were required for MyD88 aggregation and exhibited a suppressive effect on TLR ligand-induced expression of IL-6 and NOS2 in RAW264.7 cells. SQSTM1 and HDAC6 were partially involved in suppression of several TLR4-mediated signaling events, including activation of p38 and JNK, but they hardly affected degradation of IκBα (inhibitor of nuclear factor κB). Biochemical induction of MyD88 oligomerization induced recruitment of SQSTM1 and HDAC6 to the MyD88-TRAF6 signaling complex. Repression of SQSTM1 and HDAC6 enhanced formation of the MyD88-TRAF6 complex and conversely decreased interaction of the ubiquitin-specific negative regulator CYLD with the complex. Furthermore, ubiquitin-binding regions on SQSTM1 and HDAC6 were essential for MyD88 aggregation but were not required for interaction with the MyD88 complex. Thus, our study reveals not only that SQSTM1 and HDAC6 are important determinants of aggregated localization of MyD88 but also that MyD88 activates a machinery of polyubiquitinated protein accumulation that has a modulatory effect on MyD88-dependent signal transduction.