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The Annals of pharmacotherapy

Mitiglinide: a novel agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.


PMID 20841518

Abstract

To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of mitiglinide, a rapid-acting insulin secretion-stimulating agent to determine its potential role in therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A MEDLINE search (1966-May 2010) was conducted for English-language, human studies using the terms mitiglinide, KAD 1229, S 21403, and meglitinide analogs. Abstracts presented at the American Association and European Association for the Study of Diabetes annual meetings from 2005 to 2009 were also evaluated for relevant data. Articles pertinent to the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of mitiglinide were reviewed. Mitiglinide has been shown through small clinical studies (N <400) to modestly decrease hemoglobin A(1c), postprandial hyperglycemia, and oxidative stress and inflammatory markers associated with postprandial hyperglycemia. Mitiglinide exerts its hypoglycemic activity by closing adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels in the β-islet cells of the pancreas. This agent has a rapid onset and short duration of action, mimicking a physiologic pattern of insulin release in nondiabetic people. Studies suggest a starting dose of 5 mg 3 times daily with meals and a maximum dose of 20 mg 3 times daily. Overall, mitiglinide is well tolerated, with the most common adverse effect being hypoglycemia. Mitiglinide is the third agent in the class of meglitinides that targets postprandial hyperglycemia. Because of a more intensive dosing regimen, potential cost, and lack of studies assessing the clinical impact of mitiglinide therapy on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers secondary to postprandial hyperglycemia, we cannot recommend this therapy over currently approved therapies.

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SML0234
Mitiglinide calcium, ≥98% (HPLC)
C19H24NO3·0.5Ca