The Journal of biological chemistry

Protein-disulfide isomerase-associated 3 (Pdia3) mediates the membrane response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in osteoblasts.

PMID 20843786


Protein-disulfide isomerase-associated 3 (Pdia3) is a multifunctional protein hypothesized to be a membrane receptor for 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). In intestinal epithelium and chondrocytes, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) stimulates rapid membrane responses that are different from genomic effects via the vitamin D receptor (VDR). In this study, we show that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) stimulates phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2))-dependent rapid release of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), activation of protein kinase C (PKC), and regulation of bone-related gene transcription and mineralization in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells (WT) via a mechanism involving Pdia3. Pdia3 was present in caveolae based on co-localization with lipid rafts and caveolin-1. In Pdia3-silenced (Sh-Pdia3) cells, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) failed to stimulate PKC and PGE(2) responses; in Pdia3-overexpressing cells (Ov-Pdia3), responses to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) were augmented. Downstream mediators of Pdia3, PLA(2)-activating protein (PLAA) and arachidonic acid, stimulated similar PKC activation in wild-type, Sh-Pdia3, and Ov-Pdia3 cells supporting the hypothesis that Pdia3 mediates the membrane action of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Treatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) for 9 min stimulated rapid phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and increased expression of alkaline phosphatase, MMP-13, and osteopontin but decreased expression of osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin (mRNA and protein), and smad2. These effects were attenuated in Sh-Pdia3 cells. Sh-Pdia3 cells produced higher numbers of von Kossa-positive nodules and alizarin red-positive nodules compared with WT cells with or without 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment whereas Ov-Pdia3 did not show any mineralization. Our data suggest Pdia3 is an important initiator of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-stimulated membrane signaling pathways, which have both genomic and non genomic effects during osteoblast maturation.