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Respiratory physiology & neurobiology

Inhibition of adenylate cyclase attenuates muscarinic Ca²(+) signaling by a PKA-independent mechanism in rat carotid body Type I cells.


PMID 20870042

Abstract

Carotid body (CB) Type I cells respond to hypoxia by releasing excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. This mechanism leads to increased firing of the carotid sinus nerve (CSN) which alters breathing to maintain blood gases within the physiological range. Acetylcholine targets both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in the rat CB, acting postsynaptically on CSN and presynaptically on Type I cells. Muscarinic Ca²(+) signaling is inhibited by the activation of G(i)-coupled receptors including histamine H3 receptors. Here inhibition of adenylate cyclase with SQ22536 mimicked H3 receptor activation. Using Ca²(+) imaging techniques it was observed that inhibition of muscarinic Ca²(+) signaling was independent of protein kinase A (PKA) as PKA inhibitors H89 and KT5720 were without effect on the muscarinic Ca²(+) response. By contrast the Epac (exchange protein activated by cAMP) inhibitor brefeldin A inhibited muscarinic Ca²(+) signaling whereas the Epac activator 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM potentiated Ca²(+) signaling. Thus in Type I cells inhibition of adenylate cyclase inhibited muscarinic Ca²(+) signaling via a PKA-independent pathway that may rely upon modulation of Epac.

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