International journal of toxicology

Immunomodulatory effects of dietary exposure to selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus).

PMID 20884862


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been demonstrated to affect immune system modulation. The freshwater species of fish, Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill), was employed to investigate the effects of a 14-day dietary exposure to PAH including 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA), 2-methylnaphthalene (2-MN), and 9,10-dimethylanthracene (9,10-DMA) and a mixture of these 3 compounds at a total dose of 3.1 ± 0.01 mg on lymphocyte proliferation stimulated with 3 mitogens (concanavalin A [Con A], phorbol ester, and calcium ionophore). 2-Aminoanthracene was mitogenic itself and with added mitogens. 2-Methylnaphthalene induced some stimulatory and some inhibitory effects upon cell proliferation by Con A. 9,10-DMA and the mixture each suppressed cell proliferation. The mixture was highly suppressive to lymphocytes. Intracellular baseline calcium levels were reduced, possibly as a step prior to cell death. All PAH compounds tested were immunomodulatory to bluegill lymphocytes. Bluegill were demonstrated to have utility as a biomarker species for investigation of immunotoxicity.