Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

Repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma by mucosal ribotoxic insult-activated CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein.

PMID 20889551


CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) is a crucial stress-responsive factor in various mucosal injuries, including cellular translational stress conditions. In this study, chemical ribosome-inactivating stresses were assessed for their effects on stress-inducible CHOP expression and its association with epithelial inflammatory cytokine production. Several representative ribotoxic agents (deoxynivalenol, anisomycin, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol) enhanced CHOP expression and its nuclear translocation in human intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, CHOP was a strong positive regulator of IL-8 production, but CHOP-mediated IL-8 production was inversely associated with expression of the mucosal regulatory factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Based on our recent report that PPARγ is a negative regulator of mRNA stability of IL-8, PPARγ was linked to a notable mRNA stabilizing protein, HuR, since ribotoxin-induced IL-8 mRNA is stabilized by HuR protein. Expression of exogenous PPARγ suppressed ribotoxin-triggered cytoplasmic translocation of HuR. In contrast, PPARγ-regulating CHOP was a positive modulator of HuR protein export from nuclei. Taken together, the results indicate that ribotoxin-induced CHOP protein is positively associated with production of proinflammatory cytokine IL-8, but it downregulates PPARγ action, subsequently allowing the cytosolic translocation of HuR protein and stabilization of IL-8 mRNA in gut epithelial cells. CHOP and PPARγ may represent critical mechanistic links between ribotoxic stress and proinflammatory cytokine production, and they may have a broader functional significance with regard to gastrointestinal stresses by toxic mucosal insults.