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Environmental toxicology and chemistry

Ecotoxicological effects of diuron and chlorotoluron nitrate-induced photodegradation products: monospecific and aquatic mesocosm-integrated studies.


PMID 20931608

Abstract

The ecotoxicological impact of nitrate-induced photodegradation products of diuron and chlorotoluron was studied through monospecific biotests conducted in conjunction with experiments in outdoor aquatic mesocosms. Organisms representing three trophic levels were used: two heterotrophic microorganisms, the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena pyriformis, and one metazoa, the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis. Among the variety of the phenylurea photoproducts, the N-formylated ones appeared clearly more toxic than the parent compounds towards the microorganisms, whereas the nitroderivatives showed a similar toxicity. Using photodegraded solutions of diuron, toxicity was maintained or even increased during disappearance of the initial herbicide, demonstrating that some of the photoproducts may have an impact additively or in synergy. Enzymatic biomarker assays performed on Lymnaea stagnalis exposed under monospecific conditions showed significant effects, due to the combination of nitrate with the pesticide and its photoproducts. A positive impact on snail fecundity was observed with chlorotoluron both under monospecific laboratory and integrated mesocosm conditions. Oviposition stimulation took place when first- and second-generation photoproducts were predominant.

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45400
Chlortoluron, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
C10H13ClN2O