Journal of environmental quality

Lateral movement of soil fumigants 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin from treated agricultural fields.

PMID 21043285


The soil fumigants 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) are often used for controlling soil-borne plant pathogens and parasitic nematodes before reestablishing new vineyards and orchards. To evaluate crop safety and environmental risks with the replant fumigation, four field experiments were performed over 2 yr to examine 1,3-D and CP lateral movement away from the treated fields. Shank injection with or without a virtually impermeable film (V1F) was used in two vineyard fumigation experiments, and spot drip application without tarp cover was used in two orchard experiments. Results showed that 1,3-D and CP gases moved laterally to 6 m from the treated fields when the fumigants were applied by shank injection. The maximum 1,3-D or CP soil gas concentration at 6 m was approximately 10 ng cm(-3) when the fumigated plot was not cover with a tarp. With VIF, the measured maximum concentration increased to approximately 100 ng cm(-3). In the spot drip application, maximum 1,3-D and CP gas concentrations reached approximately 100 ng cm(-3) but at 1.5 m radial distance from the point of fumigant injection.