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Drug resistance updates : reviews and commentaries in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy

Wild-type MIC distributions, epidemiological cutoff values and species-specific clinical breakpoints for fluconazole and Candida: time for harmonization of CLSI and EUCAST broth microdilution methods.


PMID 21050800

Abstract

Both the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) have MIC clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for fluconazole (FLU) and Candida. EUCAST CBPs are species-specific, and apply only to C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis, while CLSI CBPs apply to all species. We reassessed the CLSI CBPs for FLU and Candida in light of recent data. We examined (1) molecular mechanisms of resistance and cross-resistance profiles, (2) wild-type (WT) MICs and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) for FLU and major Candida species by both CLSI and EUCAST methods, (3) determination of essential (EA) and categorical agreement (CA) between CLSI and EUCAST methods, (4) correlation of MICs with outcomes from previously published data using CLSI and EUCAST methods, and (5) pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations. We applied these findings to propose new species-specific CLSI CBPs for FLU and Candida. WT distributions from large collections of Candida revealed similar ECVs by both CLSI and EUCAST methods (0.5-1 mcg/ml for C. albicans, 2 mcg/ml for C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis, 32 mcg/ml for C. glabrata, and 64-128 for C. krusei). Comparison of CLSI and EUCAST MICs reveal EA and CA of 95% and 96%, respectively. Datasets correlating CLSI and EUCAST FLU MICs with outcomes revealed decreased response rates when MICs were > 4 mcg/ml for C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis, and > 16 mcg/ml for C. glabrata. Adjusted CLSI CBPs for FLU and C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis (S, ≤ 2 mcg/ml; SDD, 4 mcg/ml; R, ≥ 8 mcg/ml), and C. glabrata (SDD, ≤ 32 mcg/ml; R, ≥ 64 mcg/ml) should be more sensitive for detecting emerging resistance among common Candida species and provide consistency with EUCAST CBPs.

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