Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

Role of redox signaling regulation in propyl gallate-induced apoptosis of human leukemia cells.

PMID 21112369


Propyl gallate (PG) is a synthetic antioxidant that has been used in processed food and medicinal preparations. The anti-cancer effect of PG in leukemia is unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that PG reduced cell viability in THP-1, Jurkat, and HL-60 leukemia cells and induced apoptosis in THP-1 cells. PG activated caspases 3, 8, and 9 and increased the levels of p53, Bax, Fas, and Fas ligand. PG activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), inhibited nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and induced intracellular glutathione (GSH) depletion. In addition, PG increased superoxide dismutase-1 expression and decreased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species. Our data show for the first time that an early event of PG-induced apoptosis is MAPKs/Nrf-2-mediated GSH depletion and that PG induced apoptosis via multiple pathways in human leukemia. PG might serve as a potential chemotherapeutic agent or food supplement for human leukemia patients.