European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences

Preparation and characterisation of novel chlorothiazide potassium solid-state salt forms: Intermolecular self assembly suprastructures.

PMID 21115114


Chlorothiazide (CTZ) is a poorly soluble diuretic agent. The aim of the present work was to produce and characterise a potassium salt form of chlorothiazide which has the potential advantages of improved aqueous solubility and potassium supplementation. A number of novel potassium salt forms of CTZ (CTZK) were prepared: CTZK monohydrate (form I), CTZK dihydrate (form II), anhydrous CTZK (form III), CTZK monohydrate hemiethanolate (form IV) and a desolvate of CTZK monohydrate hemiethanolate (form V). These salt forms were characterised by thermal analysis, PXRD, NMR, elemental analysis, FTIR, Karl Fisher titrimetry, ICP-MS and GC-MS. The ethanol-free CTZK forms were also characterised by dynamic vapour sorption analysis (DVS). CTZK form I was stable (in the DVS) over the range 0-60% RH. The dihydrate form of the salt was stable (in the DVS) over a broader range of relative humidities, 10-90% RH at 25°C. CTZK form II was less hygroscopic at high humidities (70-90% RH) than the previously reported CTZNa dihydrate. Single crystal X-ray analysis indicated that chlorothiazide potassium, crystallised from water or water/acetone mixture, formed a dihydrated polymeric-like intermolecular self-assembly (ISA) suprastructure. The ISA coordination was determined to be: (CTZ)(3)·K·(H(2)O)(2)(CTZ)(2)·(H(2)O)(2)·K·(CTZ)(3) (monoclinic, space group: C2/c, single crystal cell parameters: a=18.328(4)Å, b=7.3662(16)Å, c=19.993(5)Å, α=90°, β=99.729(3)°, γ=90°). When CTZK was crystallised from ethanol, a monohydrate hemiethanolate ISA was formed, described as (CTZ)(3)·K·CTZ·(H(2)O)(2)·CTZ·K·(CTZ)(2) (triclinic, space group: P-1, single crystal cell parameters: a=7.078(3)Å, b=9.842(5)Å, c=21.994(11)Å, α=87.522(13)°, β=84.064(14)°, γ=78.822(12)°). The aqueous solubility of CTZK dihydrate, was determined to be 78.71±1.82mg/ml, approximately 400-fold higher than chlorothiazide, indicating a biopharmaceutical advantage associated with the potassium salt form.