The Journal of biological chemistry

In vivo metabolism of 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-glucose.

PMID 2115519


Recent studies have demonstrated that 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-glucose (3-FG) is metabolized to 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-sorbitol (3-FS), via aldose reductase, and 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-fructose (3-FF), via the sorbitol dehydrogenase reaction with 3-FS, in rat cerebral tissue (Kwee, I. L., Nakada, T., and Card, P. J. (1987) J. Neurochem. 49, 428-433). However, the biochemistry of 3-FG in other mammalian organs has not been investigated making the application of 3-FG as a metabolic tracer uncertain. To address this issue we investigated 3-FG metabolism and distribution in isolated cell lines and in rabbit tissues in vivo with 19F NMR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In general, the production of 3-FS is well correlated with the known distribution of aldose reductase in all the systems studied. Further metabolism of 3-FS to 3-FF was verified to occur in cerebral tissue. Surprisingly, two new fluorinated compounds were found in the liver and kidney cortex. These compounds are identified as 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-gluconic acid, which is produced via glucose dehydrogenase activity on 3-FG, and 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-gluconate-6-phosphate. Based on enzyme studies, it is argued that the 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-gluconate-6-phosphate is derived directly from 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-gluconic acid and not as a product of pentose phosphate activity. Direct oxidation and reduction are the major metabolic routes of 3-FG, not metabolism through glycolysis or the pentose phosphate shunt. Thus, 3-FG metabolism coupled with 19F NMR appears to be very useful for monitoring aldose reductase and glucose dehydrogenase activity in vivo.