Archives of toxicology

Hepatic transcriptome and proteome responses against diethyl maleate-induced glutathione depletion in the rat.

PMID 21161181


Hepatic transcriptome and proteome responses against glutathione depletion were investigated by Affymetrix GeneChip Microarray and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), followed by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis and utilizing a glutathione-depleted rat model treated with diethyl maleate (DEM). Hepatic glutathione content decreased to 1.29 μmol/g liver (25.5% compared to control) after DEM treatment, and there were no apparent hepatotoxic signs estimated by blood chemistry examinations. A total of 247 and 213 annotated gene probe sets exhibited greater than twofold up- and down-regulation compared with controls, respectively. The up-regulated gene list contained a number of glutathione depletion-responsive genes reported previously, such as Trib3, Srxn1, Myc, Asns, Igfbp1, Txnrd1, or Hmox1, suggesting that these genes are robust mRNA biomarkers for evaluating hepatic glutathione depletion. In the 2D-DIGE analysis, proteins for a total of 361 spots were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Of the identified proteins, 5 and 14 proteins showed up- and down-regulation, respectively. Some proteins exhibited differential expression in the protein level but not in the mRNA level, including L-FABP, MAWDBP, aldo-keto reductase family 1 member A1, catalase and ATP synthase subunit beta, suggesting that these proteins would be potential protein biomarkers for evaluating glutathione depletion. Moreover, up-regulation of FABP1 protein along with up-regulation of PPARα-regulated gene transcripts (i.e., Acot2 and Acot4) is indicative of PPARα activation, which may contribute to hepatocellular protection against glutathione depletion-induced oxidative stress. The up-regulation of L-FABP1 was detected by proteome data but not by transcriptome data, demonstrating the advantage of utilizing transcriptomics and proteomics combination to investigate glutathione depletion-induced molecular dynamics.

Related Materials

Product #



Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

Diethyl maleate, ≥96%, FG
Diethyl maleate, 97%