Chronobiology international

Daily rhythms of toxicity and effectiveness of anesthetics (MS222 and eugenol) in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

PMID 21231872


Although the chronotoxicity of xenobiotics is relatively well known in mammals, the existence of daily rhythms of drug toxicity and effectiveness in fish has been neglected to date. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of the time (middle of the light phase [ML] versus middle of the dark phase [MD]) of exposure to two anesthetic substances (MS-222 or clove oil) commonly used with fish on the median lethal concentration (LC(50)) and swimming activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio). To this end, adult zebrafish were kept under a 12 h:12 h light-dark (LD) cycle and exposed to different concentrations of the anesthetics for 15 min at ML or MD. LC(50) calculations were performed using the Spearman-Karber program, whereas swimming activity was video-recorded and analyzed with specialized software. Zebrafish exhibited a mostly diurnal activity pattern (77.9% of activity occurring during daytime). The acute toxicity and mortality caused by MS-222 and eugenol varied with the time of exposure. For MS-222, the LC(50) was 170.6 ± 7.4 mg/L in fish exposed at ML and 215.6 ± 3.9 mg/L at MD, whereas for eugenol the LC(50) was 70.3 ± 3.1 mg/L at ML and 104.9 ± 5.4 mg/L at MD. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of MS-222 and eugenol altered the swimming patterns of zebrafish in a different manner depending on the time of exposure. Thus, the time required for decreasing swimming activity during exposure to anesthetics was shorter at ML than at MD, whereas the recovery period was longer during the day. In conclusion, these results revealed that the toxicity and effectiveness of both anesthetic substances is highest during daytime, the active phase of fish, thus suggesting a link between the daily rhythms of behavior and toxicity.