General and comparative endocrinology

Neuropeptide evolution: neurohormones and neuropeptides predicted from the genomes of Capitella teleta and Helobdella robusta.

PMID 21241702


Genes encoding neurohormones and neuropeptide precursors were identified in the genomes of two annelids, the leech Helobdella robusta and the polychaete worm Capitella teleta. Although no neuropeptides have been identified from these two species and relatively few neuropeptides from annelids in general, 43 and 35 such genes were found in Capitella and Helobdella, respectively. The predicted peptidomes of these two species are similar to one another and also similar to those of mollusks, particular in the case of Capitella. Helobdella seems to have less neuropeptide genes than Capitella and it lacks the glycoprotein hormones bursicon and GPA2/GPB5; in both cases the genes coding the two subunits as well as the genes coding their receptors are absent from its genome. In Helobdella several neuropeptide genes are duplicated, thus it has five NPY genes, including one pseudogene, as well as four genes coding Wwamides (allatostatin B). Genes coding achatin, allatotropin, allatostatin C, conopressin, FFamide, FLamide, FMRFamide, GGRFamide, GnRH, myomodulin, NPY, pedal peptides, RGWamide (a likely APGWamide homolog), RXDLamide, VR(F/I)amide, WWamide were found in both species, while genes coding cerebrin, elevenin, GGNG, LFRWamide, LRFYamide, luqin, lymnokinin and tachykinin were only found in Capitella.