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Mutation research

A review of the genotoxicity of 1,2-dichloroethane (EDC).


PMID 21255676

Abstract

1,2-Dichloroethane (EDC, CAS#107-06-2) is a high production volume halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon that is used mainly in the manufacture of vinyl chloride. EDC has been found in ambient and residential air samples, as well as in groundwater, surface water and drinking water. EDC has been well-studied in a variety of genotoxicity assays, and appears to involve the metabolic activation of the parent compound. We critically evaluated the genotoxicity data of EDC and its metabolites as part of an evaluation of carcinogenic mechanisms of action of EDC. EDC is genotoxic in multiple test systems via multiple routes of exposure. EDC has been shown to induce DNA adduct formation, gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations in the presence of key activation enzymes (including CYP450s and/or GSTs) in laboratory animal and in vitro studies. EDC was negative for clastogenesis as measured by the micronucleus assay in mice. In general, an increased level of DNA damage is observed related to the GSH-dependent bioactivation of EDC. Increased chromosomal aberrations with increased CYP450 expression were suggestive of a role for the oxidative metabolites of EDC in inducing chromosomal damage. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that EDC exposure, in the presence of key enzymes (including CYP450s and/or GSTs), leads to DNA adduct formation, gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations.