Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry

Influence of amino acid relative position on the oxidative modification of histidine and glycine peptides.

PMID 21279630


The radical oxidation of isomeric peptides containing one reactive amino acid [histidine (H)] and another less reactive amino acid [glycine (G)] in the form of dipeptides (HG and GH) and tripeptides (HGG, GHG, and GGH) was studied by mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (LC-MS) for detection and LC-MS(n) for structural characterization. The oxidation products identified were keto, hydroxy, keto-hydroxy, and hydroperoxide derivatives for both di- and tripeptides. Among these, it was found that insertion of oxygen atoms occurred at histidine for HG and HGG, and both histidine and glycine for GH, GHG, and GGH. In addition, oxidation products formed by alkoxyl rearrangement reactions with cleavage of the peptide chain were also identified for GH, GHG, and GGH, corroborating hydrogen abstraction step in G residues. These findings were supported through the identification of radical intermediate species formed and trapped with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrrolidine-N-oxide (DMPO) spin trap. The observation of DMPO adducts bearing two spin trap molecules reinforced the abstraction of two hydrogen atoms from the same molecule. Overall, modification sites identified showed that the outcome of oxidative behavior of peptides is influenced not only by the reactivity of the amino acid in the peptide sequence but also by its relative position within the sequence.

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L-Histidine dihydrochloride, ≥99.0% (AT)
C6H9N3O2 · 2HCl