Current drug delivery

M cells prefer archaeosomes: an in vitro/in vivo snapshot upon oral gavage in rats.

PMID 21291382


The archaeolipids (lipids extracted from archaebacterias) are non saponificable molecules that form self sealed mono or bilayers (archaeosomes-ARC). Different to liposomes with bilayers made of conventional glycerophospholipids, the bilayer of ARC posses a higher structural resistance to physico chemical and enzymatic degradation and surface hydrophobicity. In this work we have compared the binding capacity of ARC exclusively made of archaeols containing a minor fraction of sulphoglycophospholipids, with that of liposomes in gel phase on M-like cells in vitro. The biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical (99m)Tc-DTPA loaded in ARC vs that of liposomes upon oral administration to Wistar rats was also determined. The fluorescence of M-like cells upon 1 and 2h incubation with ARC loaded with the hydrophobic dye Rhodamine-PE (Rh-PE) and the hydrophilic dye pyranine (HPTS) dissolved in the aqueous space, was 4 folds higher than upon incubation with equally labeled liposomes. Besides, 15% of Rh-PE and 13 % of HPTS from ARC and not from liposomes, were found in the bottom wells, a place that is equivalent to the basolateral pocket from M cells. This fact suggested the occurrence of transcytosis of ARC. Finally, 4 h upon oral administration, ARC were responsible for the 22.3 % (3.5 folds higher than liposomes) shuttling of (99m)Tc-DTPA to the blood circulation. This important amount of radioactive marker in blood could be a consequence of an extensive uptake of ARC by M cells in vivo, probably favored by their surface hydrophobicity. Taken together, these results suggested that ARC, proven their adjuvant capacity when administered by parenteral route and high biocompatibility, could be a suitable new type of nanoparticulate material that could be used as adjuvants by the oral route.