Annales pharmaceutiques francaises

FAD-dependent enzymes involved in the metabolic oxidation of xenobiotics.

PMID 21296217


Although the majority of oxidative metabolic reactions are mediated by the CYP superfamily of enzymes, non-CYP-mediated oxidative reactions can play an important role in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Among the major oxidative enzymes, other than CYPs, involved in the oxidative metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics, the flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs), the molybdenum hydroxylases [aldehyde oxidase (AO) and xanthine oxidase (XO)] and the FAD-dependent amine oxidases [monoamine oxidases (MAOs) and polyamine oxidases (PAOs)] are discussed in this minireview. In a similar manner to CYPs, these oxidative enzymes can also produce therapeutically active metabolites and reactive/toxic metabolites, modulate the efficacy of therapeutically active drugs or contribute to detoxification. Many of them have been shown to be important in endobiotic metabolism (e.g. XO, MAOs), and, consequently, interactions between drugs and endogenous compounds might occur when they are involved in drug metabolism. In general, most non-CYP oxidative enzymes (e.g. FMOs, MAOs) appear to be noninducible or much less inducible than the CYP system. Some of these oxidative enzymes exhibit polymorphic expression, as do some CYPs (e.g. FMO3). It is possible that the contribution of non-CYP oxidative enzymes to the overall metabolism of xenobiotics is underestimated, as most investigations of drug metabolism have been performed using experimental conditions optimised for CYP activity, although in some cases the involvement of non-CYP oxidative enzymes in xenobiotic metabolism has been inferred from not sufficient experimental evidence.

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(−)-Riboflavin, from Eremothecium ashbyii, ≥98%