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Histochemistry and cell biology

Reorganization of the nuclear lamina and cytoskeleton in adipogenesis.


PMID 21350821

Abstract

A thorough understanding of fat cell biology is necessary to counter the epidemic of obesity. Although molecular pathways governing adipogenesis are well delineated, the structure of the nuclear lamina and nuclear-cytoskeleton junction in this process are not. The identification of the 'linker of nucleus and cytoskeleton' (LINC) complex made us consider a role for the nuclear lamina in adipose conversion. We herein focused on the structure of the nuclear lamina and its coupling to the vimentin network, which forms a cage-like structure surrounding individual lipid droplets in mature adipocytes. Analysis of a mouse and human model system for fat cell differentiation showed fragmentation of the nuclear lamina and subsequent loss of lamins A, C, B1 and emerin at the nuclear rim, which coincides with reorganization of the nesprin-3/plectin/vimentin complex into a network lining lipid droplets. Upon 18 days of fat cell differentiation, the fraction of adipocytes expressing lamins A, C and B1 at the nuclear rim increased, though overall lamin A/C protein levels were low. Lamin B2 remained at the nuclear rim throughout fat cell differentiation. Light and electron microscopy of a subcutaneous adipose tissue specimen showed striking indentations of the nucleus by lipid droplets, suggestive for an increased plasticity of the nucleus due to profound reorganization of the cellular infrastructure. This dynamic reorganization of the nuclear lamina in adipogenesis is an important finding that may open up new venues for research in and treatment of obesity and nuclear lamina-associated lipodystrophy.