Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

Aerobic versus Anaerobic Microbial Degradation of Etofenprox in a California rice field soil.

PMID 21351774


The microbial degradation of etofenprox, an ether pyrethroid, was characterized under anaerobic (flooded) and aerobic (nonflooded) California rice field soil conditions by determination of its half-life (t1/2) and dissipation rate constant (k) and identification and quantification of degradation products at both 22 and 40 °C using LC-MS/MS. The overall anaerobic t1/2 at 22 °C ranged from 49.1 to 100 days (k=-0.0141 to -0.0069 days(-1)) compared to 27.0 days (k=-0.0257 days(-1)) at 40 °C, whereas under aerobic conditions the overall t1/2 was 27.5 days (k=-0.0252 days(-1)) at 22 °C compared to 10.1-26.5 days (k=-0.0686 to -0.0262 days(-1)) at 40 °C. The biphasic dissipation profiles were also fit to a first-order model to determine the t1/2 and k for both the fast and slow kinetic regions of the dissipation curves. Hydroxylation at the 4'-position of the phenoxy phenyl ring was the major metabolic process under anaerobic conditions for both 22 °C (maximum% yield of applied etofenprox mass=1.3±0.7%) and 40 °C (max % yield=1.2±0.8%). Oxidation of the ether moiety to the ester was the major metabolite under aerobic conditions at 22 °C (max% yield=0.5±0.1%), but at 40 °C increased amounts of the hydroxylated form were produced (max% yield=0.7±0.2%, compared to 0.3±0.1% for the ester). The hydrolytic product of the ester, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), was not detected in any samples. Sterilized control soils showed little etofenprox degradation over the 56-day incubation period. Thus, the microbial population in a flooded soil was able to transform and contribute to the overall dissipation of etofenprox. The simulated summer temperature extreme (40 °C) increased the overall degradation.

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Etofenprox, PESTANAL®, analytical standard