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Cell death & disease

Intracellular Ca2+ release through ryanodine receptors contributes to AMPA receptor-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress in oligodendrocytes.


PMID 21364659

Abstract

Overactivation of ionotropic glutamate receptors in oligodendrocytes induces cytosolic Ca(2+) overload and excitotoxic death, a process that contributes to demyelination and multiple sclerosis. Excitotoxic insults cause well-characterized mitochondrial alterations and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction, which is not fully understood. In this study, we analyzed the contribution of ER-Ca(2+) release through ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol triphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) to excitotoxicity in oligodendrocytes in vitro. First, we observed that oligodendrocytes express all previously characterized RyRs and IP(3)Rs. Blockade of Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release by TMB-8 following α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptor-mediated insults attenuated both oligodendrocyte death and cytosolic Ca(2+) overload. In turn, RyR inhibition by ryanodine reduced as well the Ca(2+) overload whereas IP(3)R inhibition was ineffective. Furthermore, AMPA-triggered mitochondrial membrane depolarization, oxidative stress and activation of caspase-3, which in all instances was diminished by RyR inhibition. In addition, we observed that AMPA induced an ER stress response as revealed by α subunit of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α phosphorylation, overexpression of GRP chaperones and RyR-dependent cleavage of caspase-12. Finally, attenuating ER stress with salubrinal protected oligodendrocytes from AMPA excitotoxicity. Together, these results show that Ca(2+) release through RyRs contributes to cytosolic Ca(2+) overload, mitochondrial dysfunction, ER stress and cell death following AMPA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in oligodendrocytes.

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