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American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology

Impaired vascular responses of insulin-resistant rats after mild subarachnoid hemorrhage.


PMID 21421821

Abstract

Insulin resistance (IR) impairs cerebrovascular responses to several stimuli in Zucker obese (ZO) rats. However, cerebral artery responses after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have not been described in IR. We hypothesized that IR worsens vascular reactions after a mild SAH. Hemolyzed blood (300 μl) or saline was infused (10 μl/min) into the cisterna magna of 11-13-wk-old ZO (n = 25) and Zucker lean (ZL) rats (n = 25). One day later, dilator responses of the basilar artery (BA) and its side branch (BA-Br) to acetylcholine (ACh, 10(-6) M), cromakalim (10(-7) M, 10(-6) M), and sodium nitroprusside (10(-7) M) were recorded with intravital videomicroscopy. The baseline diameter of the BA was increased both in the ZO and ZL rats 24 h after the hemolysate injection. Saline-injected ZO animals showed reduced dilation to ACh (BA = 9 ± 3 vs. 22 ± 4%; and BA-Br = 23 ± 5 vs. 37 ± 7%) compared with ZL rats. Hemolysate injection blunted the response to ACh in both the ZO (BA = 4 ± 2%; and BA-Br = 12 ± 3%) and ZL (BA = 7 ± 2%; and BA-Br = 11 ± 3%) rats. Cromakalim (10(-6) M)-induced dilation was significantly reduced in the hemolysate-injected ZO animals compared with the saline control (BA = 13 ± 3 vs. 26 ± 5%; and BA-Br = 28 ± 8 vs. 44 ± 9%) and in the hemolysate-injected ZL rats compared with their saline control (BA = 24 ± 4 vs. 32 ± 4%; but not BA-Br = 39 ± 6 vs. 59 ± 9%). No significant difference in sodium nitroprusside reactivity was observed. Western blot analysis of the BA showed a lower baseline level of neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression and an enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 level in the hemolysate-injected ZO animals. In summary, cerebrovascular reactivity to both endothelium-dependent and -independent stimuli is severely compromised by SAH in IR animals.

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