Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.)

Acute-phase protein α1-antitrypsin inhibits neutrophil calpain I and induces random migration.

PMID 21494752


A rapid recruitment of neutrophils to sites of injury or infection is a hallmark of the inflammatory response and is required for effective host defense against pathogenic stimuli. However, neutrophil-mediated inflammation can also lead to chronic tissue destruction; therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying neutrophil influx and activation is of critical importance. We have previously shown that the acute phase protein α1-antitrypsin (AAT) inhibits neutrophil chemotaxis. In this study, we examine mechanisms related to the effect of AAT on neutrophil responses. We report a previously unknown function of AAT to inactivate calpain I (μ-calpain) and to induce a rapid cell polarization and random migration. These effects of AAT coincided with a transient rise in intracellular calcium, increase in intracellular lipids, activation of the Rho GTPases, Rac1 and Cdc42, and extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Furthermore, AAT caused a significant inhibition of nonstimulated as well as formyl-met-leu-phe (fMLP)-stimulated neutrophil adhesion to fibronectin, strongly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-8 release and slightly delayed neutrophil apoptosis. The results presented here broaden our understanding of the regulation of calpain-related neutrophil functional activities, and provide the impetus for new studies to define the role of AAT and other acute phase proteins in health and disease.