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Carcinogenesis

Modulating effects in human diets of dietary fibre and beef, and of time and dose on the reactive microcapsule trapping of benzo[a]pyrene metabolites in the rat gastrointestinal tract.


PMID 2157556

Abstract

Trapping by magnetic polyethyleneimine (PEI) microcapsules was utilized to investigate the influence in male rats of dose, human dietary composition and time-dependence on reactive metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract; also, PEI microcapsules modified with copper phthalocyanine tetrasulphonic acid (CPTS) were tested in vivo for trapping of endogenous mutagens having planar molecular structure. In a preliminary experiment the PEI microcapsules were administered by gavage at 0, 24 and 48 h, with [14C]B[a]P at 2 h to chow-fed BDVI rats; microcapsules were recovered from faeces collected at 24, 48 and 72 h, and then subjected to an extraction sequence showing that the trapped B[a]P metabolites were inconsistent with B[a]P diol epoxide trapping (as previously found) and unaltered by elapsed time or 5-fold dose alteration of B[a]P. Then five groups of F344 rats were fed isocalorically either one of four low-fat human diets or rat chow; in order to investigate influences of diet both on B[a]P and endogenous mutagens, half of each group was tested at 2 weeks with this PEI microcapsule/[14C]B[a]P protocol and then at 3 weeks, PEI-CPTS microcapsules (two gavages). So as to provide a cross-over comparison, the other half of each group was first tested with PEI-CPTS microcapsules followed by PEI microcapsules/[14C]B[a]P 1 week later. The human diets were prepared from cooked British foods so as to simulate the adequate intake of all nutrients required by humans; but with 3-fold differences in intake levels of beef and dietary fibre non-starch polysaccharide (NSP), while ensuring the same intake of available energy, protein, fat and calcium. They gave very similar body-weight gains in the four groups but greatly reduced faecal weight, protein and total faecal enzyme activity compared with chow; the extraction pattern of microcapsule-trapped B[a]P metabolite radioactivity was not significantly altered. However, human diet consumption caused a 2- to 6-fold increase in B[a]P metabolite binding to microcapsules and reductions in microcapsule recovery, net 70-h B[a]P excretion, faecal protein and total activities for beta-glucuronidase and beta-galactosidase; these effects were more pronounced after 3 weeks, presumably due to prolonged dietary adaptation. Increased NSP in human diets significantly increased the B[a]P metabolite excretion and marginally reduced the microcapsule binding. The increase in microcapsule binding of B[a]P metabolites, interpreted as reflecting an increased amount of reactive metabolites encountered, was related to the dietary intake weight ratio of beef/NSP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)