Advances in pharmacology (San Diego, Calif.)

Allosteric modulation of purine and pyrimidine receptors.

PMID 21586360


Among the purine and pyrimidine receptors, the discovery of small molecular allosteric modulators has been most highly advanced for the A(1) and A(3) adenosine receptors (ARs). These AR modulators have allosteric effects that are structurally separated from the orthosteric effects in SAR studies. The benzoylthiophene derivatives tend to act as allosteric agonists as well as selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the A(1) AR. A 2-amino-3-aroylthiophene derivative T-62 has been under development as a PAM of the A(1) AR for the treatment of chronic pain. Several structurally distinct classes of allosteric modulators of the human A(3) AR have been reported: 3-(2-pyridinyl)isoquinolines, 2,4-disubstituted quinolines, 1H-imidazo-[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amines, endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol, and the food dye Brilliant Black BN. Site-directed mutagenesis of A(1) and A(3) ARs has identified residues associated with the allosteric effect, distinct from those that affect orthosteric binding. A few small molecular allosteric modulators have been reported for several of the P2X ligand-gated ion channels and the G protein-coupled P2Y receptor nucleotides. Metal ion modulation of the P2X receptors has been extensively explored. The allosteric approach to modulation of purine and pyrimidine receptors looks promising for development of drugs that are event and site specific in action.