Connective tissue research

A novel proteolytic processing of prolysyl oxidase.

PMID 21591931


Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an amine oxidase that is critical for the stability of connective tissues. The secreted proLOX is enzymatically quiescent and is activated through proteolytic cleavage between residues Gly(162) and Asp(163) (residue numbers according to the mouse LOX) by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-1 gene products. Here we report a novel processing of proLOX identified in vitro and in vivo. Two forms of mature LOX were identified and characterized by their immunoreactivity to specific antibodies, amine oxidase activity, and mass spectrometry. One form was identified as a well-characterized BMP-1 processed LOX protein. Another was found to be a truncated form of LOX resulting from the cleavage at the carboxy terminus of Arg(192). The truncated form of LOX still appeared to retain amine oxidase activity. The results from the proLOX gene deletion and mutation experiments indicated that the processing occurs independent of the cleavage of proLOX by BMP-1 gene products and likely requires the presence of LOX propeptide. These results indicate that proLOX could be processed by two different mechanisms producing two forms of active LOX.