PloS one

Rapid reactivation of extralymphoid CD4 T cells during secondary infection.

PMID 21647373


After infection, extralymphoid tissues are enriched with effector and memory T cells of a highly activated phenotype. The capacity for rapid effector cytokine response from extralymphoid tissue-memory T cells suggests these cells may perform a 'sentinel' function in the tissue. While it has been demonstrated that extralymphoid CD4+ T cells can directly respond to secondary infection, little is known about how rapidly this response is initiated, and how early activation of T cells in the tissue may affect the innate response to infection. Here we use a mouse model of secondary heterosubtypic influenza infection to show that CD4(+) T cells in the lung airways are reactivated within 24 hours of secondary challenge. Airway CD4(+) T cells initiate an inflammatory cytokine and chemokine program that both alters the composition of the early innate response and contributes to the reduction of viral titers in the lung. These results show that, unlike a primary infection, extralymphoid tissue-memory CD4(+) T cells respond alongside the innate response during secondary infection, thereby shaping the overall immune profile in the airways. These data provide new insights into the role of extralymphoid CD4(+) T cells during secondary immune responses.

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10831 Histopaque®-1083, sterile-filtered, density: 1.083 g/mL