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PloS one

Cten is targeted by Kras signalling to regulate cell motility in the colon and pancreas.


PMID 21698197

Abstract

CTEN/TNS4 is an oncogene in colorectal cancer (CRC) which enhances cell motility although the mechanism of Cten regulation is unknown. We found an association between high Cten expression and KRAS/BRAF mutation in a series of CRC cell lines (p = 0.03) and hypothesised that Kras may regulate Cten. To test this, Kras was knocked-down (using small interfering (si)RNA) in CRC cell lines SW620 and DLD1 (high Cten expressors and mutant for KRAS). In each cell line, Kras knockdown was mirrored by down-regulation of Cten Since Kras signals through Braf, we tested the effect of Kras knockdown in CRC cell line Colo205 (which shows high Cten expression and is mutant for BRAF but wild type for KRAS). Cten levels were unaffected by Kras knockdown whilst Braf knockdown resulted in reduced Cten expression suggesting that Kras signals via Braf to regulate Cten. Quantification of Cten mRNA and protein analysis following proteasome inhibition suggested that regulation was of Cten transcription. Kras knockdown inhibited cell motility. To test whether this could be mediated through Cten, SW620 cells were co-transfected with Kras specific siRNAs and a Cten expression vector. Restoring Cten expression was able to restore cell motility despite Kras knockdown (transwell migration and wounding assay, p<0.001 for both). Since KRAS is mutated in many cancers, we investigated whether this relationship could be demonstrated in other tumour models. The experiments were repeated in the pancreatic cancer cell lines Colo357 & PSN-1(both high Cten expressors and mutant for KRAS). In both cell lines, Kras was shown to regulate Cten and forced expression of Cten was able to rescue loss of cell motility following Kras knockdown in PSN-1 (transwell migration assay, p<0.001). We conclude that, in the colon and pancreas, Cten is a downstream target of Kras and may be a mechanism through which Kras regulates of cell motility.